3. Innovation by country (version 2)

by Wen 2012

1. Introduction

The goal of this article is to compare countries or regions in terms of science and technology innovation. The rankings are based on publications in two academic journals - "Science" and "Nature". "Science" and "Nature" cover the full range of scientific disciplines and are the two most prestigious academic journals.

A country gets points for every publication whose first author is from that country. If the first author lists affiliations in n countries then those countries each get 1/n points. For example, if the first author works in Canada and in the US, both Canada and the US get half a point. Note that by first author I mean only the first author listed even if other authors are described as having contributed equally.

Although this method is very simple, I believe it is preferable to other rankings like BCG's or INSEAD's Global Innovation Index which are based on invalid criteria like total publications, publications with a foreign coauthor (publication quality varies dramatically & a foreign coauthor is not a measure of quality), research spending (a measure of effort not achievement) or patents (patent law varies widely between countries).

2. Comments

The US accounts for more than half (53.9%) of the world's innovation. But per capita Switzerland is more than twice as innovative as the US and 30 times more innovative than the global average. China ranks 5th in overall innovation (after the US, the UK, Germany and France) but is 6 times LESS innovative per capita than the global average.

3. Rankings for 2014

Rank       Region Innovation Population Innovation_per_capita
   1  Switzerland       53.3      8.081               6.59984
   2      Iceland        1.0      0.323               3.09598
   3      Denmark       15.2      5.614               2.71642
   4          USA      854.2    318.900               2.67848
   5      Austria       21.5      8.474               2.53717
   6       Israel       19.0      8.059               2.35761
   7           UK      139.0     64.100               2.16849
   8  Netherlands       29.0     16.800               1.72619
   9       Sweden       16.0      9.593               1.66788
  10      Germany      112.5     80.620               1.39544
  11    Singapore        7.3      5.399               1.35828
  12    Australia       29.5     23.130               1.27540
  13      Belgium       13.5     11.200               1.20536
  14      Finland        5.8      5.439               1.05718
  15       Norway        5.0      5.084               0.98348
  16     Slovenia        2.0      2.060               0.97087
  17       Canada       33.3     35.160               0.94805
  18       France       59.8     66.030               0.90615
  19      Estonia        1.0      1.325               0.75472
  20  New_Zealand        2.0      4.471               0.44733
  21        Spain       20.8     46.770               0.44366
  22     Portugal        4.1     10.460               0.39038
  23        Japan       46.2    127.300               0.36266
  24      Ireland        1.5      4.595               0.32644
  25        WORLD     1585.0   7208.000               0.21989
  26        Italy       11.5     59.830               0.19221
  27       Greece        1.5     11.030               0.13599
  28        Chile        2.3     17.620               0.13243
  29  South_Korea        6.5     50.220               0.12943
  30       Panama        0.5      3.864               0.12940
  31      Hungary        1.0      9.897               0.10104
  32 South_Africa        3.5     52.980               0.06606
  33         Mali        1.0     15.300               0.06536
  34       Taiwan        1.5     23.370               0.06418
  35        China       53.7   1357.000               0.03955
  36    Argentina        1.0     41.450               0.02413
  37       Russia        2.5    143.500               0.01742
  38       Brazil        2.5    200.400               0.01248
  39        Kenya        0.5     44.350               0.01127
  40       Mexico        1.0    122.300               0.00818
  41        India        2.0   1252.000               0.00160

4. Rankings for 2013

Rank         Region Innovation Population Innovation_per_capita
   1    Switzerland       48.0      8.081               5.93986
   2        Iceland        1.0      0.323               3.09598
   3            USA      846.0    318.900               2.65287
   4        Denmark       13.0      5.614               2.31564
   5             UK      145.0     64.100               2.26209
   6    Netherlands       34.8     16.800               2.07341
   7         Israel       14.0      8.059               1.73719
   8         Sweden       15.5      9.593               1.61576
   9        Germany      124.5     80.620               1.54428
  10      Singapore        7.5      5.399               1.38915
  11      Australia       26.3     23.130               1.13849
  12         Canada       39.5     35.160               1.12344
  13        Austria        9.5      8.474               1.12108
  14        Finland        5.0      5.439               0.91929
  15         Norway        3.8      5.084               0.75400
  16        Belgium        8.2     11.200               0.72917
  17         France       46.8     66.030               0.70927
  18        Ireland        2.5      4.595               0.54407
  19          Japan       64.5    127.300               0.50668
  20       Slovenia        1.0      2.060               0.48544
  21          Spain       15.8     46.770               0.33854
  22    New_Zealand        1.5      4.471               0.33550
  23        Georgia        1.0      4.504               0.22202
  24          WORLD     1580.0   7208.000               0.21920
  25          Italy       12.5     59.830               0.20893
  26    South_Korea        9.5     50.220               0.18917
  27         Taiwan        4.0     23.370               0.17116
  28       Portugal        1.5     10.460               0.14340
  29 Czech_Republic        1.5     10.520               0.14259
  30          Chile        1.5     17.620               0.08513
  31       Malaysia        2.0     29.720               0.06729
  32         Greece        0.5     11.030               0.04533
  33          China       60.8   1357.000               0.04483
  34   South_Africa        2.0     52.980               0.03775
  35      Argentina        1.0     41.450               0.02413
  36         Russia        2.5    143.500               0.01742
  37         Turkey        1.0     74.930               0.01335
  38         Poland        0.5     38.530               0.01298
  39        Ukraine        0.5     45.490               0.01099
  40         Mexico        1.3    122.300               0.01090
  41         Brazil        2.0    200.400               0.00998
  42          India        0.5   1252.000               0.00040

5. Rankings for 2012

Rank         Region Innovation Population Innovation_per_capita
   1        Iceland        2.0      0.323               6.19195
   2    Switzerland       47.5      8.081               5.87799
   3            USA      895.5    318.900               2.80809
   4        Denmark       13.0      5.614               2.31564
   5             UK      145.8     64.100               2.27509
   6        Austria       17.5      8.474               2.06514
   7         Israel       13.5      8.059               1.67515
   8         Sweden       13.0      9.593               1.35515
   9        Germany      108.5     80.620               1.34582
  10    Netherlands       21.5     16.800               1.27976
  11      Australia       27.5     23.130               1.18893
  12        Belgium       12.0     11.200               1.07143
  13         Canada       36.0     35.160               1.02389
  14         Cyprus        1.0      1.141               0.87642
  15        Ireland        4.0      4.595               0.87051
  16         France       55.7     66.030               0.84305
  17         Norway        4.0      5.084               0.78678
  18    New_Zealand        3.5      4.471               0.78282
  19      Singapore        3.5      5.399               0.64827
  20        Finland        3.5      5.439               0.64350
  21          Japan       52.5    127.300               0.41241
  22          Spain       17.5     46.770               0.37417
  23    Puerto_Rico        1.0      3.548               0.28185
  24         Panama        1.0      3.864               0.25880
  25         Taiwan        6.0     23.370               0.25674
  26          Italy       14.8     59.830               0.24792
  27 Czech_Republic        2.5     10.520               0.23764
  28          WORLD     1591.0   7208.000               0.22073
  29       Slovakia        1.0      5.414               0.18471
  30         Greece        2.0     11.030               0.18132
  31    South_Korea        8.0     50.220               0.15930
  32          Chile        2.5     17.620               0.14188
  33       Portugal        1.0     10.460               0.09560
  34        Hungary        0.7      9.897               0.06736
  35         Poland        2.5     38.530               0.06488
  36      Sri_Lanka        1.0     20.480               0.04883
  37      Argentina        2.0     41.450               0.04825
  38   Saudi_Arabia        1.0     28.830               0.03469
  39          China       38.0   1357.000               0.02800
  40          Kenya        1.0     44.350               0.02255
  41   South_Africa        1.0     52.980               0.01888
  42       Malaysia        0.5     29.720               0.01682
  43        Morocco        0.5     33.010               0.01515
  44    Philippines        1.0     98.390               0.01016
  45         Mexico        1.0    122.300               0.00818
  46         Russia        1.0    143.500               0.00697
  47          Egypt        0.5     82.060               0.00609
  48         Brazil        0.5    200.400               0.00250
  49          India        0.5   1252.000               0.00040

6. Rankings for 2011

Rank         Region Innovation Population Innovation_per_capita
   1    Switzerland   48.16667      7.702               6.25379
   2         Israel   23.00000      7.562               3.04152
   3            USA  859.66667    313.085               2.74579
   4             UK  145.33333     62.417               2.32843
   5        Denmark   12.00000      5.573               2.15324
   6        Austria   16.50000      8.413               1.96125
   7    Netherlands   26.33333     16.665               1.58016
   8         Sweden   14.50000      9.441               1.53585
   9        Germany  122.00000     82.163               1.48485
  10         Canada   43.00000     34.350               1.25181
  11      Australia   23.83333     22.606               1.05429
  12         France   64.16667     63.126               1.01649
  13         Norway    5.00000      4.925               1.01523
  14        Belgium   10.00000     10.754               0.92989
  15        Finland    4.50000      5.385               0.83565
  16        Estonia    1.00000      1.341               0.74571
  17          Japan   76.50000    126.497               0.60476
  18    New_Zealand    2.50000      4.415               0.56625
  19       Slovenia    1.00000      2.035               0.49140
  20          Spain   18.83333     46.455               0.40541
  21        Ireland    1.50000      4.526               0.33142
  22       Portugal    3.50000     10.690               0.32741
  23          Qatar    0.50000      1.870               0.26738
  24      Singapore    1.33333      5.188               0.25700
  25          Italy   15.33333     60.789               0.25224
  26          WORLD   1611.000       7000               0.23014
  27    South_Korea   10.00000     48.391               0.20665
  28        Hungary    2.00000      9.966               0.20068
  29         Taiwan    3.50000     23.234               0.15064
  30         Greece    1.50000     11.390               0.13169
  31   South_Africa    4.50000     50.460               0.08918
  32          Chile    1.50000     17.270               0.08686
  33      Argentina    2.00000     40.765               0.04906
  34 Czech_Republic    0.50000     10.534               0.04747
  35        Ecuador    0.50000     14.666               0.03409
  36           Iran    2.00000     74.799               0.02674
  37         Poland    1.00000     38.299               0.02611
  38          China   33.16667   1347.570               0.02461
  39          Kenya    1.00000     41.610               0.02403
  40         Russia    1.83333    142.836               0.01284
  41         Brazil    1.50000    196.655               0.00763
  42       Thailand    0.50000     69.519               0.00719
  43          India    4.00000   1241.490               0.00322

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